PALLAVA ART and ARCHITECTURE

They were the first recognised south Indian dynasty which laid seeds of Dravidian temple architecture which was followed by Chalukyas, Cholas etc. They were influenced by Amravati style. Temples were mainly vaishnavite and Shaivite. They were instrumental in transition from rock cut architecture to stone temples in south. Their earlier buildings were rock cut but later were structural. Their early temples were called Mandapam. Early buildings of Pallavas were attrivuted to the reign of Mahendraverman a contemporary of Pulakeshin 2.

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AMRAVATI or SATVAHANA STYLE, 200 Century BCE to 200 Century AD

The third type of sculpture art – apart from Gandhara and Mathura – that flourished around the Kushana time was Amaravati School of art in the Andhra Pradesh under patronage of Satvahanas or Andhra dynasty and later under Vakatakas. This was focused on Buddhist art and architecture and later also on Brahmin art. Stupas and sculptures were central to this art. Amravati Stupa is one of its magnificent examples was also known as Mahachaitya Stupa. Marble was used in this

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BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE – A BRIEF HISTORY

Buddhism and Jainism introduced the art of rock-cut caves. The caves were cut out of solid rocks and were in two parts, one called the hall of worship or Chaitya and the other the monastery for living of monks or Vihara. The earliest viharas were made of wood, and then of brick. The Indian gateway archs, the torana, reached East Asia with the spread of Buddhism. Buddhist architecture blended with Roman architecture and Hellenestic architecture to give rise to unique

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OTHER RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS, BHAKTI, PHILOSOPHY, PRINCIPLES and ORGANISATIONS

AJIVIKA Ajeevika, an ascetic sect that emerged in India about the same time as Buddhism and Jainism and that lasted until the 14th century. It was founded by Goshala Maskariputra, a friend of Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara. Basic premise of this school was ‘Niyati’ or destiny. So, Ajivikas were fatalists and adhered to inaction as according to them everything is pre-determined. Ashoka built Lomus caves in Barbar Hilla near Bodh Gaya, Bihar for them. CARVAKA or LOKAYATA or BRAHSPATYA PHILOSOPHY

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Buddhism and Its Branches

Over the years, Buddhism developed into many branches. Some of them are – Theravada – literally, ‘the Teaching of the Elders’ or ‘the Ancient Teaching,’ is the oldest surviving Buddhist school. It was founded in India. It is relatively conservative and closer to early Buddhism and is still prevalent in Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Indonesia etc. Hinyana – It is also the oldest and original branch and perhaps more orthodox. It depicts Buddha and incidents associated with his life only

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JAINISM

Jaina comes from the word – jina – means conqueror. Jain teachers are known as Tirthankaras. One who attains moksa is referred to as a siddha, but only a siddha who establishes or revitalizes Jainism – one who establishes a tirtha across the river of human misery – is called a tirthankara. In Jainism, a Tirthankara is a human being who achieves moksa through asceticism and who then becomes a role-model and teacher for those seeking spiritual guidance. Jaina tradition

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RELIGIOUS PHILOSOPHIES

HINDUISM and HINDU LITERATURE  Hinduism is one of the oldest religions with no definite theories of its origin and starting point. Earliest literary and religio-philosphical works are in form of Vedas and other literature. There are four Vedas and each of them also has – Samahitas, Brahmanas, Upnishadas and Araynakas – as four parts. ·        The Vedic literature is broadly divided into two categories viz. Shruti and Smriti. Shruti is ‘that which has been heard’ and is canonical, consisting of

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JUDAISM

It is one of the oldest monotheistic religions of the world and both Christianity and Islam developed from Judaism. Basic belief of the Jews is that God has promised to bless Abraham and his descendents if they remain faithful to him and God repeated the same to son and grandson Jacob or Israel of Abraham. This is the reason that all Jews are called children of Israel. Their basic teachings come from Torah or the first five books of Hebrew

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Mauryan Pillar Art

Monolithic pillars and capitols made during this period are prime example of Mauryan art. The important places where the pillars have been found are Basarah-Bakhira, Lauriya-Nandangarh, Rampurva, Sankisa and Sarnath. These pillars were carved in two types of stone viz. the spotted red and white sandstone from the region of Mathura and buff-coloured fine grained hard sandstone usually with small black spots quarried in the Chunar near Varanasi. The uniformity of style in the pillar capitals suggests that they were

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BUDDHIST ART in POST-MAURYAN PERIOD

Bharhut is one of the prominent places of early Buddhist art.  Bharhut sculptures are tall like the images of Yaksha and Yakhshini in the Mauryan period. Here, sculptures are carved out with features like – low relief, densely packed with objects, persons with folded hands as there was no scope of projections due to low relief etc. Figures of yaksha-yakshinis along with natural settings were common themes apart from scenes from Jatak tales. Stories are depicted in terms of a

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